In light of the ongoing urban sprawl reported in recent studies, accurate urban mapping is essential for assessing current status and evolve new policies, to overcome various social, environmental, and economic consequence. Imagery and LiDAR data integration densifies remotely sensed data with radiometric and geometric characteristics, respectively, for a precise segregation of different urban features. This study integrated aerial and LiDAR images using point primitives, which were obtained from running the Phase Congruency model as an image filter to detect edges and corner. The main objective is to study the effect of applying the filter at different spatial resolutions on the registration accuracy and processing time. The detected edge/corner points that are mutual in both datasets, were identified as candidate points. The Shape Context Descriptor method paired-up candidate points as final points based on a minimum correlation of 95%. Affine, second and third order polynomials, in addition to the Direct Linear Transformation models were applied for the image registration process using the two sets of final points. The models were solved using Least Squares adjustments, and validated by a set of 55 checkpoints. It was observed that with the decrease in spatial resolution, on one hand, the registration accuracy did not significantly vary. However, the consistency of the model development and model validation accuracies were enhanced, especially with the third order polynomial model. On the other hand, the number of candidate points decreased; consequently, the processing time significantly declined. The 3D LiDAR points were visualised based on the Red, Green, and Blue radiometric values that were inherited from the aerial photo. The qualitative inspection was very satisfactory, especially when examining the scene’s tiny details. In spite of the interactivity in determining the candidate points, the proposed procedure overcomes the dissimilarity between datasets in terms of acquisition technique and time, and widens the tolerance of accepting points as candidates by including points that are not traditionally considered (i.e. road intersections).
|Name||International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives|
|Publisher||International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing|
- Phase Congruency
- Shape Context Descriptor
- Spatial Resolution
- Information Systems
- Geography, Planning and Development