Secondary phases and disorder degree investigation of Cu2ZnSnS4 films

Jiangtao Xu, Jing Yang, Shouxiang Jiang (Corresponding Author), Songmin Shang (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films are deposited onto the glass slides via the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, and subsequently sulfurized at different heating rates of 5 °C/min, 20 °C/min, 35 °C/min and 50 °C/min, respectively. The disorder degrees and the secondary phases of finally obtained CZTS thin films are then systematically investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, Raman spectroscopy, Raman mapping, UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy, and the Hall effect measurement system. The morphological, structural, and electrical properties of fabricated CZTS films affected by the heating rate are subsequently evaluated. The heating rate of 20 °C/min during the sulfurization process is found to produce a nearly single-phase kesterite CZTS with a substantially low disorder degree. However, more Cu2-xS and Cu3SnS3 secondary phases are found in samples that are annealed at other heating rates. The effect of heating rate on the decomposition during the sulfurization process is also studied and then elaborated. This study provides an optimal condition for minimizing the secondary phases and disorders, in other words, providing the idea process condition to manufacture the high-quality CZTS thin films for solar cells with high conversion efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4135-4142
Number of pages8
JournalCeramics International
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021


  • CZTS
  • Heating rate
  • Raman spectra
  • Secondary phase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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