Second-order ionospheric effect on PPP over Hong Kong

Shengyue Ji, Duojie Weng, Zhenjie Wang, Wu Chen, Wingshan Chan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In the past few years, precise point positioning (PPP) has become an important positioning method for many practical applications. It is based on ionosphere-free carrier phase combination measurements, in which only first-order ionospheric error is removed. Past research has shown that high-order ionospheric effect can affect PPP performance.In this study, the effect of high-order ionospheric error, the second-order one, on PPP has been evaluated in Hong Kong, a low latitude area. First, a method regarding how to calculate second-order ionospheric error is introduced and the evaluation method is also discussed. After that, the numerical results are shown. Based on the results, it is found that the effect of the second-order ionospheric error on ionosphere-free carrier phase combination measurements reached up to the cm level in 2001 and the effect of the second-order ionospheric error on both kinematic and static PPP also reached the cm level. Further, it is also demonstrated that the effect of second-order ionospheric error on PPP is closely related to solar activity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-192
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • GPS
  • PPP
  • Second-order ionospheric error

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science

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