A ruthenium complex of meso-tetrakis(2,6-dichlorophenyl)porphyrin, [RuII(TDCPP)(CO)(EtOH)], is immobilized into mesoporous MCM-41 molecular sieves; the supported Ru catalyst can effect highly selective heterogeneous alkene epoxidations using 2,6-dichloropyridine TV-oxide as terminal oxidant. Aromatic and aliphatic alkenes can be efficiently converted to their epoxides in good yields and selectivities, and cis-alkenes such as czs-stilbene, cis-β-methylstyrene, and cis-β-deuteriostyrene are epoxidized stereospecifically. Oxidation of cycloalkenes, e.g., norbornene and cyclooctene, can be carried out effectively using the heterogeneous Ru-catalyzed reaction while these alkenes are unreactive in the zeolite-based titanium silicate (TS-l)-catalyzed conditions (Murugavel, R.; Roesky, H. W. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 1997, 36, 477). On the other hand, the Ru/M-41(m) catalyst displays size selectivity in the (+)-limonene oxidation where the terminal C=C bond (vs internal trisubstituted C=C bond) becomes more readily oxidized. Bulky 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-D-glucal has failed to react under the heterogeneous Ru-catalyzed conditions, whereas the smaller acetyl derivative is converted to a 3:1 mixture of α- and β-glycal epoxides. The Ru/M-41(m) catalyst can be used repeatedly, and 67% of its initial activity is retained after 11 691 turnovers (three runs). The loss of activity is attributed to catalyst leaching and/or deactivation. On the basis of Hammett correlation (ρ+= -0.72, R = 0.997) and product studies (cyclohexene and crs-alkenes as the substrates), a reactive dioxorutheniumCVI) porphyrin intermediate is not favored. An oxoruthenium(V) complex or oxoruthenium(IV) porphyrin cation radical could be the key intermediate for this highly selective epoxidation reaction.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of Organic Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 16 Oct 1998|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry