Robust patchwork-based embedding and decoding scheme for digital audio watermarking

Iynkaran Natgunanathan, Yong Xiang, Yue Rong, Wanlei Zhou, Song Guo

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a novel patchwork-based embedding and decoding scheme for digital audio watermarking. At the embedding stage, an audio segment is divided into two subsegments and the discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of the subsegments are computed. The DCT coefficients related to a specified frequency region are then partitioned into a number of frame pairs. The DCT frame pairs suitable for watermark embedding are chosen by a selection criterion and watermarks are embedded into the selected DCT frame pairs by modifying their coefficients, controlled by a secret key. The modifications are conducted in such a way that the selection criterion used at the embedding stage can be applied at the decoding stage to identify the watermarked DCT frame pairs. At the decoding stage, the secret key is utilized to extract watermarks from the watermarked DCT frame pairs. Compared with existing patchwork watermarking methods, the proposed scheme does not require information of which frame pairs of the watermarked audio signal enclose watermarks and is more robust to conventional attacks.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6198872
Pages (from-to)2232-2239
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 27 Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Audio watermarking
  • discrete cosine transform (DCT)
  • generalized Gaussian distribution
  • patchwork

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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