Robust GNSS Positioning Using Unbiased Finite Impulse Response Filter

Jie Dou, Bing Xu, Lei Dou

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


In a typical GNSS receiver, pseudorange and pseudorange rate measurements are generated through the code and carrier tracking loops, respectively. These measurements are then employed to calculate the user’s position and velocity (PV) solutions, which is typically achieved using a Kalman filter (KF) or the least squares (LS) algorithm. However, the LS method only uses the current observation without error analysis. The positioning result is greatly affected by the errors in the observed data. In KF, by using an iterative approach that combines predictions and measurements of PV information, more accurate estimates can be obtained because the PV information is time-correlated. Meanwhile, its optimal estimate requires that both the model and noise statistics are exactly known. Otherwise, achieving optimality cannot be guaranteed. To address this issue, this paper proposes and implements a novel GNSS solution method based on an unbiased finite impulse response (UFIR) filter. Two different field tests were conducted. The position results of UFIR are compared with those from the LS and KF methods, and the horizon positioning mean error is improved by 44% and 29%, respectively, which highlights its efficacy. The method offers two primary benefits: it is robust to noise uncertainty, and it leverages historical data within the UFIR framework to provide a more accurate estimate of the current state.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4528
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • GNSS solutions
  • Kalman filter
  • least squares
  • robustness
  • unbiased finite impulse response filter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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