Road user charging design: Dealing with multi-objectives and constraints

Agachai Sumalee, Simon Shepherd, Anthony May

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes an innovative approach for designing a road user charging scheme to meet multiple policy objectives. Three practical features are integrated into the design methodology including (i) cordon formation, (ii) a set of design constraints, and (iii) multiple objectives of the scheme. The methods also consider possible responses of road travellers to the charging scheme. Two methods based on genetic algorithms (GA) are developed for optimising a charging cordon scheme with constraints and with multiple objectives. The dynamic self-adaptive penalty GA and Non-dominated Sorting GA II (NSGA-II) are applied to the constrained design and multi-objective design respectively. The objective functions or constraints considered include social welfare improvement, revenue generation, and distributional equity impact. A case study of the City of Edinburgh is presented and common characteristics of charging cordon designs which perform well against the three objectives are discussed. 2009.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-186
Number of pages20
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 24 Feb 2009


  • Cordon pricing
  • Genetic algorithms
  • Multi-objectives
  • Policy optimization
  • Road pricing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Development
  • Transportation


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