To investigate the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and Type 1 ROP in extremely preterm Chinese infants. A retrospective review of medical records was performed of all extremely preterm neonates (gestational age, GA ≤ 28 weeks) screened for ROP from 2007 to 2012 at an ophthalmology centre in Hong Kong. Thirty-three maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP. The mean gestational age (GA) was 26.4 ± 1.3 weeks and the birth weight (BW) was 855.0 ± 199.0 g. The incidence of ROP development was 60.7% and 16.2% for Type 1 ROP. On univariate analysis, 6 risk factors were identified for ROP development including: lighter BW; lower GA; postnatal hypotension; inotrope use; surfactant use; and invasive mechanical ventilation (all P ≤ 0.01). On multivariate analysis, neonatal congenital heart disease and greater GA were protective factors for ROP development (P ≤ 0.04). On the other hand, 4 risk factors were associated with Type 1 ROP development in univariate analysis, including: lower GA, lighter BW, multiple pregnancies, and invasive mechanical ventilation (all P ≤ 0.02); while there was no significant risk factors on multivariate analysis. A lighter BW and lower GA were the only common independent risk factors for both ROP and Type 1 ROP while neonatal congenital heart disease and greater GA were the protective factors against ROP.
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