Riding towards a sustainable future: an evaluation of bike sharing's environmental benefits in Xiamen Island, China

Jianxiao Liu, Meilian Wang, Pengfei Chen, Chaoxiang Wen, Yue Yu, K. W. Chau

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


In the pursuit of sustainable urbanization, Bike-Sharing Services (BSS) emerge as a pivotal instrument for promoting green, low-carbon transit. While BSS is often commended for its environmental benefits, we offer a more nuanced analysis that elucidates previously neglected aspects. Through the Dominant Travel Distance Model (DTDM), we evaluate the potential of BSS to replace other transportation modes for specific journey based on travel distance. Utilizing multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR), we illuminate the relationship between BSS's environmental benefits and built-environment attributes. The life cycle analysis (LCA) quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production to operation, providing a deeper understanding of BSS's environmental benefits. Notably, our study focuses on Xiamen Island, a Chinese “Type II large-sized city” (1–3 million population), contrasting with the predominantly studied “super large-sized cities” (over 10 million population). Our findings highlight: (1) A single BSS trip in Xiamen Island reduces GHG emissions by an average of 19.97 g CO2-eq, accumulating monthly savings of 144.477 t CO2-eq. (2) Areas in the southwest, northeast, and southeast of Xiamen Island, characterized by high population densities, register significant BSS environmental benefits. (3) At a global level, the stepwise regression model identifies five key built environment factors influencing BSS's GHG mitigation. (4) Regionally, MGWR enhances model precision, indicating that these five factors function at diverse spatial scales, affecting BSS's environmental benefits variably.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-288
Number of pages13
JournalGeography and Sustainability
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Carbon emission
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Multiscale geographically weighted regression
  • Shared mobility
  • Travel behavior
  • Urban mobility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Ecology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation


Dive into the research topics of 'Riding towards a sustainable future: an evaluation of bike sharing's environmental benefits in Xiamen Island, China'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this