Revisiting the Ionospheric Disturbances Over Low Latitude Region of China During Super Typhoon Hato

Ke Li, Donghe Zhang, Yi Zeng, Yaoyu Tian, Guofeng Dai, Zhizhao Liu, Guanglin Yang, Shuji Sun, Guozhu Li, Yongqiang Hao, Zuo Xiao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


The ionosphere exhibits complex variations due to the influences from above and below. To distinguish the source of ionospheric disturbances is important for understanding the variation process and the coupling mechanism among different regions. Using the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) derived from Global Navigation Satellite System observations, the ionospheric disturbances during the super typhoon Hato in 2017 that was accompanied by a weak geomagnetic storm are revisited, including the ionospheric deviation and traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). It is found that the ionospheric TEC in the low-latitude region of China experienced a significant enhancement (200% compared to the quiet geomagnetic day) on Hato landing day. This enhancement covers the northern and southern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region from 80°E to 180°E. Considering the geomagnetic condition, the hmF2 and the O/N2 ratio in thermosphere, it is concluded that this enhancement is not related to the typhoon, but to the coinciding weak geomagnetic storm. Additionally, several medium-scale TIDs are verified from differential TEC data in China low latitude region during Hato period. Most of them occur after sunset and their propagating direction is southwest that often occur in East-Asian sector in summer months, which are not related to the typhoon. While a few TIDs with concentric wavefront (Concentric TIDs) are also observed on the day before Hato landfall that should be excited in the deep convective region of the typhoon. Because the ionosphere is affected by disturbances both from above and below, it should be careful to determine the source of the ionospheric disturbances.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2023SW003694
JournalSpace Weather
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • geomagnetic storm
  • ionospheric variation
  • traveling ionospheric disturbance
  • tropical cyclone
  • typhoon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science


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