Uveitis is a group of sight-threatening ocular inflammatory diseases, potentially leading to permanent vision loss in patients. However, it remains largely unknown how uveitis causes retinal malfunction and vision loss. Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rodents is a good animal model to study uveitis and associated acute retinal inflammation. To understand the pathogenic mechanism of uveitis and screen potential targets for treatment, we analyzed the retinal proteomic profile of the EIU mouse model using a data-independent acquisition-based mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS). After systemic LPS administration, we observed activation of microglial cells accompanied with the elevation of pro-inflammatory mediators and visual function declines. In total, we observed 79 upregulated and 90 downregulated differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Among the DEPs, we found that histone family members (histone H1, H2A, H2B) and blood proteins including haptoglobin (HP), hemopexin (HPX), and fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG) were dramatically increased in EIU groups relative to those in control groups. We identified phototransduction and synaptic vesicle cycle as the top two significant KEGG pathways. Moreover, canonical pathway analysis on DEPs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed top three most significant enriched pathways related to acute phase response signaling, synaptogenesis signaling, and eif2 signaling. We further confirmed upregulation of several DEPs associated with the acute phase response signaling including HP, HPX, and FGG in LPS-treated retinas by qPCR and Western blot. In summary, this study serves as the first report to detect retinal proteome changes in the EIU model. The study provides several potential candidates for exploring the mechanism and novel therapeutic targets for uveitis and other retinal inflammatory diseases.