Research on cold-formed high strength steel tubular T- and X-joints

Madhup Pandey, Ben Young

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


This paper summarises the investigations carried out by the authors on traditional and member-rotated T- and X-joints made of cold-formed S900 and S960 steel grades tubular members with nominal 0.2% proof stresses (equivalent to yield strengths) of 900 MPa and 960 MPa, respectively. Static structural performance of two traditional and three member-rotated configurations of tubular T- and X-joints undergoing axial compression load through brace members was investigated. The experimental investigations included 165 tests and targeted different failure modes in the chord members of the investigated joints. In addition, 32 tensile and compression coupon tests were also carried out by the authors to determine the tensile mechanical properties of these tubular members. Finite element (FE) models were developed and verified against the test results by duly showing the capability of reciprocating experimental joint strengths, failure modes, and load-deformation curves. Upon validations of the developed FE models, comprehensive parametric studies comprising 2254 finite element models were performed. In order to examine the applicability of existing design rules for the investigated high strength steel tubular joints, static strengths obtained from tests and numerical studies were compared with nominal strengths calculated from design equations given in Eurocode 3, CIDECT, and literature. Generally, it has been demonstrated that the existing design rules cannot provide accurate strengths for the investigated joints. Therefore, the authors have proposed user-friendly, accurate, and reliable design rules to predict the static strengths of cold-formed S900 and S960 steel grades traditional and member-rotated tubular T- and X-joints.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108669
JournalJournal of Constructional Steel Research
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2024


  • Cold-formed steel
  • Design rules
  • High strength steel
  • Hollow sections
  • T- and X-joints
  • Tubular members

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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