Remove Cosine Window from Correlation Filter-based Visual Trackers: When and How

Feng Li, Xiaohe Wu, Wangmeng Zuo (Corresponding Author), Dapeng Zhang, Lei Zhang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Correlation filters (CFs) have been continuously advancing the state-of-the-art tracking performance and have been extensively studied in the recent few years. Nonetheless, the existing CF trackers adopt a cosine window to spatially reweight base image to alleviate boundary discontinuity. However, cosine window emphasizes more on the central regions of base image and has the risk of contaminating negative training samples during model learning. On the other hand, spatial regularization deployed in many recent CF trackers plays a similar role as cosine window by enforcing spatial penalty on CF coefficients. Therefore, we in this paper investigate the feasibility to remove cosine window from CF trackers with spatial regularization. When simply removing cosine window, CF with spatial regularization still suffers from small degree of boundary discontinuity. To tackle this issue, binary and Gaussian shaped mask functions are further introduced for eliminating boundary discontinuity while reweighting the estimation error of each training sample, and can be incorporated with multiple CF trackers with spatial regularization. In comparison to the baseline methods with cosine window, our methods are effective in handling boundary discontinuity and sample contamination, thereby benefiting tracking performance. Extensive experiments on four benchmarks show that our methods perform favorably against the state-of-the-art trackers using either handcrafted or deep CNN features.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9106784
Pages (from-to)7045 – 7060
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020


  • correlation filters
  • cosine window
  • spatial regularization
  • Visual tracking

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