This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in anymedium, provided the original author and source are credited. Background The ability to perform a cognitive task while walking simultaneously (dual-tasking) is important in real life. However, the psychometric properties of dual-task walking tests have not been well established in stroke. Objective To assess the test-retest reliability, concurrent and known-groups validity of various dualtask walking tests in people with chronic stroke. Design Observational measurement study with a test-retest design. Methods Eighty-eight individuals with chronic stroke participated. The testing protocol involved four walking tasks (walking forward at self-selected and maximal speed, walking backward at self-selected speed, and crossing over obstacles) performed simultaneously with each of the three attention-demanding tasks (verbal fluency, serial 3 subtractions or carrying a cup of water). For each dual-task condition, the time taken to complete the walking task, the correct response rate (CRR) of the cognitive task, and the dual-task effect (DTE) for the walking time and CRR were calculated. Forty-six of the participants were tested twice within 3-4 days to establish test-retest reliability. Results The walking time in various dual-task assessments demonstrated good to excellent reliability [Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) = 0.70-0.93; relative minimal detectable change at 95% confidence level (MDC95%) = 29%-45%]. The reliability of the CRR (ICC2,1 = 0.58-0.81) and the DTE in walking time (ICC2,1 = 0.11-0.80) was more varied. The reliability of the DTE in CRR (ICC2,1 =-0.31-0.40) was poor to fair. The walking time and CRR obtained in various dual-task walking tests were moderately to strongly correlated with those of the dual-task Timed-up-And-Go test, thus demonstrating good concurrent validity. None of the tests could discriminate fallers (those who had sustained at least one fall in the past year) from non-fallers. Limitation The results are generalizable to community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke only. Conclusions The walking time derived from the various dual-task assessments generally demonstrated good to excellent reliability, making them potentially useful in clinical practice and future research endeavors. However, the usefulness of these measurements in predicting falls needs to be further explored. Relatively low reliability was shown in the cognitive outcomes and DTE, which may not be preferred measurements for assessing dual-task performance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)