Regime-dependent 1-min irradiance separation model with climatology clustering

Dazhi Yang, Yizhan Gu, Martin János Mayer, Christian A. Gueymard, Wenting Wang, Jan Kleissl, Mengying Li, Yinghao Chu, Jamie M. Bright

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Since directly measuring beam and diffuse irradiance is not feasible on many occasions, one often has to resort to estimating the beam and diffuse irradiance components from the global irradiance, which is known as separation modeling. Separation modeling is essentially a nonlinear regression problem, with the clearness index being the main input and the diffuse fraction being the output. Hundreds of separation models with various complexities have been proposed, among which the YANG4 model was recently validated using worldwide data as the quasi-universal choice for 1-min data. In this work, YANG4 is further improved by regime-dependent fitting, i.e., fitting a separate set of model coefficients for each climatological regime. Different regimes are determined through clustering of cloud cover frequency, aerosol optical depth, and surface albedo climatology maps. The new YANG5 model is able to outperform its predecessor at the 126 stations tested, covering a wide range of climate types. Overall, the normalized root mean square errors for beam normal irradiance (BNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) of YANG5 are 17.55% and 32.92% on average, as compared to 19.13% and 34.94% for the next best model, namely, YANG4. Furthermore, through conducting pairwise Diebold–Mariano tests, YANG5 is shown superior to YANG4 at 110/126 sites for BNI prediction and 93/126 for DHI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113992
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • Cluster analysis
  • Regime-dependent model
  • Separation modeling
  • Solar radiation
  • Worldwide validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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