Recent Phenomenal and Investigational Subsurface Landslide Monitoring Techniques: A Mixed Review

Kyrillos M.P. Ebrahim, Sherif M.M.H. Gomaa, Tarek Zayed, Ghasan Alfalah

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Landslides are a common and challenging geohazard that may be caused by earthquakes, rainfall, or manmade activity. Various monitoring strategies are used in order to safeguard populations at risk from landslides. This task frequently depends on the utilization of remote sensing methods, which include the observation of Earth from space, laser scanning, and ground-based interferometry. In recent years, there have been notable advancements in technologies utilized for monitoring landslides. The literature lacks a comprehensive study of subsurface monitoring systems using a mixed review approach that combines systematic and scientometric methods. In this study, scientometric and systematic analysis was used to perform a mixed review. An in-depth analysis of existing research on landslide-monitoring techniques was conducted. Surface-monitoring methods for large-scale landslides are given first. Next, local-scale landslide subsurface monitoring methods (movement, forces and stresses, water, temperature, and warning signs) were examined. Next, data-gathering techniques are shown. Finally, the physical modeling and prototype field systems are highlighted. Consequently, key findings about landslide monitoring are reviewed. While the monitoring technique selection is mainly controlled by the initial conditions of the case study, the superior monitoring technique is determined by the measurement accuracy, spatiotemporal resolution, measuring range, cost, durability, and applicability for field deployment. Finally, research suggestions are proposed, where developing a superior distributed subsurface monitoring system for wide-area monitoring is still challenging. Interpolating the complex nonlinear relationship between subsurface monitoring readings is a clear gap to overcome. Warning sign systems are still under development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number385
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • early warning monitoring
  • investigational monitoring
  • landslide monitoring
  • real-time monitoring
  • subsurface monitoring
  • wireless monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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