In recent decades, rapid urbanization and a high level of utility activities in most major cities have reached a state that roads are severely congested. Besides, environmental costs incurred by trench excavation, including noise, emissions and safety are very substantial, particularly under the current atmosphere with increasing environmental awareness by the general public. As such, innovative and less disruptive methods of installation of utility works such as no-dig technology have emerged and have been adopted throughout the world in these few years. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art of the technology and developments in trenchless construction.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Transactions of the Institution of Engineers, Australia. Civil engineering|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Apr 1992|
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