Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are a promising power and sensing solution for biomedical applications attributed to the high electrical output and sensitivity with low‐cost and widely available materials. Here, the recent developments in TENG‐based biomedical applications with various structures and functionalities are discussed and summarized. Wearable TENGs perform well in motion and respiratory monitoring with excellent flexibility and low bio‐risks. Implantable TENGs enable interactions with the cardio‐cerebral vascular system and nervous system to monitor and treat different diseases with good biodegradability. Furthermore, explorations of TENGs in in vitro systems, including drug delivery, cellular proliferation and differentiation, are reviewed. Perspectives on the biomedical applications of TENGs are proposed based on investigation in this area in the past two decades. With continuous efforts in miniaturization and optimization of robustness, the TENG‐based self‐powered biomedical systems will definitely play an important role in the healthcare market in the future.