The deadly Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has become one of the most challenging pandemics in the last century. Clinical diagnosis reports a high infection rate within a large population and a rapid mutation rate upon every individual infection. The polymerase chain reaction has been a powerful and gold standard molecular diagnostic technique over the past few decades and hence a promising tool to detect the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid sequences. However, it can be costly and involved in complicated processes with a high demand for on-site tests. This pandemic emphasizes the critical need for designing cost-effective and fast diagnosis strategies to prevent a potential viral source by ultrasensitive and selective biosensors. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanocomposites have been developed with unique physical and chemical properties crucial for building up nucleic acid and protein biosensors. In this review, we cover various types of 2D TMD biosensors available for virus detection via the mechanisms of photoluminescence/optical, field-effect transistor, surface plasmon resonance, and electrochemical signals. We summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of 2D TMD nanocomposite systems for sensing proteins/nucleic acid from different types of lethal viruses. Finally, we identify and discuss the advantages and limitations of TMD-based nanocomposites biosensors for viral recognition.
- Transition metal dichalcogenide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ceramics and Composites
- Engineering (miscellaneous)