Recent advances in mechanochemical production of chemicals and carbon materials from sustainable biomass resources

Feng Shen, Xinni Xiong, Junyan Fu, Jirui Yang, Mo Qiu, Xinhua Qi, Daniel C.W. Tsang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

113 Citations (Scopus)


Biomass resources have been considered as one of the most promising renewable feedstocks to replace fossil resources. However, valorization of biomass is still challenging due to concerns about environmental sustainability and low efficiency of conversion processes. Mechanical ball milling technology, which has emerged as an efficient and environmentally sound alternative to traditional method, can overcome this obstacle to facilitate biomass valorization. Mechanical energy in the ball milling process can induce chemical reactions of biomass in solvent-less/-free conditions. This work reviews the latest advances in the mechanochemical conversion of biomass into chemicals and carbon materials. The initial pretreatment of biomass, catalytic transformation process of biomass, and synthesis of biomass-derived carbon materials (ordered mesoporous carbons, hierarchically porous carbons, carbon/metal composites, etc.) are discussed in detail. Mechanisms, development history, key influencing factors, and technology readiness level of ball milling on biomass valorization are also elucidated. Limitations and opportunities associated with this green technology are highlighted for future research directions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109944
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020


  • Ball milling
  • Biomass valorization
  • Lignocellulose
  • Porous carbon
  • Sustainable biorefinery
  • Waste management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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