Realtime online courses mutated amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Empirical study in hospitality program

Kang Lin Peng, Pearl M.C. Lin, Jusi Xu, Xin Wang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Real-time online courses (RTOCs), a new online learning mode, have been developed because of a longitudinal suspension of classes amid the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. We explore an information model to review the learning process and outcomes of RTOCs, which conducted educational activities via social media. Results show that social media can be a potent mediation factor with the moderation of structural differentiation to facilitate online learning outcomes. Conclusions imply that the life-changing impact of COVID-19 has caused an evolutionary online education mode that can be hybridized with face-to-face education and massive open online courses to flourish education approaches and pedagogies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100379
JournalJournal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Education mutation
  • Hybrid-learning
  • Information entropy
  • Real-time online courses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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