Real-Time Monitoring of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Lesion Formation Using Acousto-Optic Sensing

Puxiang Lai, James R. McLaughlan, Andrew B. Draudt, Todd W. Murray, Robin O. Cleveland, Ronald A. Roy

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising modality that is used to noninvasively ablate soft tissue tumors. Nevertheless, real-time treatment monitoring with diagnostic ultrasound still poses a significant challenge since tissue necrosis, in the absence of cavitation or boiling, provides little acoustic contrast with normal tissue. In comparison, the optical properties of tissue are significantly altered accompanying lesion formation. A photorefractive crystal-based acousto-optic (AO) sensing system that uses a single HIFU transducer to simultaneously generate tissue necrosis and pump the AO interaction is used to monitor the real-time optical changes associated with thermal lesions induced in chicken breast ex vivo. It is found that the normalized change in AO response increases proportionally with the volume of necrosis. This study demonstrates AO sensing can identify the onset and growth of lesion formation in real time and, when used as feedback to guide exposures, results in more predictable lesion formation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-252
Number of pages14
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Acousto-optic imaging
  • Active and passive cavitation detection
  • Guidance
  • High-intensity focused ultrasound
  • Lesion formation
  • Lesion volume
  • Monitoring
  • Photorefractive crystal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Biophysics
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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