Reaction pathways and kinetics of butylated hydroxyanisole with UV, ozonation, and UV/O3 processes

T. K. Lau, Wei Chu, N. Graham

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


The chemical degradation of the endocrine disrupting chemical, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), was investigated by different treatment processes including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, ozonation (O3), and UV/O3. O demethylation, dimerization, and oxidation have been found to be the main degradation mechanisms. A systematic decay pathway was proposed based on ten identified intermediates in the studied processes, including a unique pathway leading to the formation of precipitates in the ozonation process. An unconventional minimum-type variation of BHA decay rate constants from acidic to caustic range has been found for both ozonation and UV/O3processes. The precipitates formed during ozonation can be removed during the process to optimize the treatment, while the UV/O3process can offer a relatively fast and clean process to degrade BHA and its associated intermediates.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)765-774
Number of pages10
JournalWater Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2007


  • Advanced oxidation process
  • Butylated hydroxyanisole
  • Dimerization
  • Endocrine disruptor
  • Ozone
  • Photolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth-Surface Processes

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