Public toilets for visually impaired persons: Application of the Principles of Universal Design

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Equal opportunities should be available to all, and it is only fair and correct that visually impaired persons (VIPs) have equal access to public toilets. However, VIPs, including those in welldeveloped cities with a high standard of living, face many different barriers when accessing public toilets. Since 2009, a study has been carried out in Hong Kong to review public policy and attempt to improve this situation by striving for an inclusive public environment to assist VIPs. This paper identifies deficiencies in existing policies, and by applying the Universal Design Principles introduced by the Center of University Design of the North Carolina State University, USA, some key design issues that require attention and proposes possible improvements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-126
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2011


  • Accessibility
  • Inclusion
  • Public design
  • Public toilet
  • Universal Design
  • Visually impaired persons (VIPs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)

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