Psychometric Evaluation of the Persian eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) Among Elder Iranians With Heart Failure

Chung Ying Lin, Anders Broström, Mark D. Griffiths, Amir H. Pakpour

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) using classical test theory and modern test theory among elderly Iranian individuals with heart failure (HF). Individuals with objectively verified HF (n = 388, 234 males, mean age = 68.9 ± 3.4) completed the (i) eHEALS, (ii) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, (iii) Short Form 12, (iv) 9-item European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale, and (v) 5-item Medication Adherence Report Scale. Two types of analyses were carried out to evaluate the factorial structure of the eHEALS: (i) confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in classical test theory and (ii) Rasch analysis in modern test theory. A regression model was constructed to examine the associations between eHEALS and other instruments. CFA supported the one-factor structure of the eHEALS with significant factor loadings for all items. Rasch analysis also supported the unidimensionality of the eHEALS with item fit statistics ranging between 0.5 and 1.5. The eHEALS was significantly associated with all the external criteria. The eHEALS is suitable for health-care providers to assess eHealth literacy for individuals with HF.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEvaluation and the Health Professions
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • classical test theory
  • eHealth literacy
  • heart failure
  • Iran
  • modern test theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy


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