Psychometric analysis of the sleep hygiene index and correlation with stress and anxiety among Saudi University students

Shahnawaz Anwer, Ahmad Alghadir, Md Dilshad Manzar, Majumi M. Noohu, Mohammed Salahuddin, Heng Li

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI) instrument in screening poor sleep hygiene practices among Saudi university students. As a secondary goal, the association of sleep hygiene practices with stress and anxiety scores were assessed. Methods: Two-hundred and four healthy college and university students aged 18 to 25 years participated in this cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Participants were asked to complete the English version of the SHI instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, and to provide demographic details. Results: The average scores for the SHI, the GAD-7, and the PSS-10 were 6.6, 5.3, and 16.2, respectively. The internal consistency of the SHI was adequate (McDonald’s Omega 0.76). The corrected item-total correlations for all the items were fair (range, 0.31–0.50). A statistically significant positive correlation/association of the SHI scores with the PSS score, GAD-7, and self-reported poor sleep were obtained in this sample of Saudi university students. Factor analysis favored a 4-factor model of the SHI in the study sample. Conclusion: The SHI scale demonstrated an adequate level of internal consistency as a self-reported instrument in the assessment of sleep hygiene among Saudi university students. In addition, poor sleep hygiene was correlated with stress and anxiety scores.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-332
Number of pages8
JournalNature and Science of Sleep
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Adolescent
  • Anxiety
  • Mood
  • Sleep hygiene
  • Stress
  • University student

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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