Protecting yourself and others: festival tourists’ pro-social intentions for wearing a mask, maintaining social distancing, and practicing sanitary/hygiene actions

Xiaoting Chi, Heesup Han, Seongseop Kim

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study investigated the formation of travelers’ pro-social intentions of wearing a mask, maintaining social distancing, and practicing sanitary/hygiene actions in the festival tourism context by merging the extended norm activation model (NAM) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The developed theoretical framework was further deepened by evaluating the moderating role of tourists’ perceptions about COVID-19. A sample of 413 Chinese travelers with domestic festival experience before or during the pandemic was used for data analysis. The outcomes revealed that all the hypotheses were statistically supported, and the sufficiency of the proposed model, integrating the NAM and the TPB to predict festival travelers’ pro-social behavioral intentions, was verified. Furthermore, travelers’ perceptions about COVID-19 had a significant moderating effect on four associations: between problem awareness of COVID-19 and ascribed responsibility; ascribed responsibility and anticipated sense of guilt; problem awareness of COVID-19 and attitudes toward pro-social behaviors; and subjective norms and intentions for pro-social behaviors.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Sustainable Tourism
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Festival tourism
  • norm-activation model
  • perception about COVID-19
  • pro-social intentions
  • theory of planned behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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