Probing intermediate temperature heat release in autoignition of C3-C4 iso-alcohol/gasoline blends

Song Cheng, S. Scott Goldsborough, Scott W. Wagnon, William J. Pitz

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This work reports an experimental and modeling study on the blending effects of C3–C4 iso-alcohols, namely iso-propanol and iso-butanol, on the characteristics of intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) for a research-grade gasoline (FACE-F) in a rapid compression machine operating at diluted/stoichiometric fuel loading, compressed pressure of 43 bar, and compressed temperatures from 700 to 970 K. Changes in ITHR behavior are characterized through ITHR extent and evolution at 0 to 30 vol% iso-alcohol blending levels. Experimental observations reveal the strong promoting and decelerating effects on ITHR extent and evolution, respectively, within the low-temperature regime for both iso-alcohols, with stronger effects seen for iso-propanol; within the intermediate-temperature regime, the influence of both iso-alcohols diminishes greatly. Comprehensive chemical kinetic modeling is undertaken using a recently developed gasoline surrogate/alcohol model in conjunction with a five-component gasoline surrogate (FGF-LLNL), with good agreement obtained with the experiments for all the blends. Sensitivity, rate of production and flux analyses highlight the importance of chemical kinetic interactions via both fuel-specific and non-fuel-specific reactions. Disabling all the chemical kinetic interactions between iso-alcohol and FGF-LLNL in carbonated/non-fuel-specific species leads to somewhat extended ITHR duration and reduced ignition reactivity. Direct comparison between FGF-LLNL/iso-propanol and FGF-LLNL/iso-butanol blends is also made, where iso-propanol and iso-butanol are found to influence ITHR characteristics via significantly different chemical kinetic interactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111602
JournalCombustion and Flame
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • C3–C4 iso-alcohol/gasoline blends
  • Chemical kinetic interaction
  • Intermediate temperature heat release

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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