Probabilistic bearing fault diagnosis using Gaussian process with tailored feature extraction

Mingxuan Liang, Kai Zhou

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Deep learning methods recently have gained growing interests and are extensively applied in the data-driven bearing fault diagnosis. However, current deep learning methods perform the bearing fault diagnosis in the form of deterministic classification, which overlook the uncertainties that inevitably exist in actual practice. To tackle this issue, in this research, we develop a probabilistic fault diagnosis framework that can account for the uncertainty effect in prediction, which bears practical significance. This framework uses the Gaussian process classifier (GPC) as the mainstay, which fundamentally is built upon the Bayesian inference. To establish the high-fidelity GPC, the tailored feature extraction method can be adaptively determined through the cross validation-based grid search upon a prespecified method pool consisting of various kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) methods and stacked autoencoder. This adaptive strategy can ensure the adequate GPC model training to accurately characterize the complex nonlinear relations between the data features and respective faults. Systematic case studies using the publicly accessible experimental rolling bearing dataset, i.e., CWRU bearing dataset are carried out to validate this new framework. The results clearly illustrate the unique capability of this framework in handling uncertainties. It is also found that this framework outperforms other well-established machine learning and deep learning models in terms of accuracy and robustness. Moreover, the sensor fusion that combines the spatial vibration measurements appears to be an effective technique to further enhance the fault diagnosis performance. By fully leveraging the probabilistic feature of the framework, the future research endeavor, such as the extended fault diagnosis using limited fault labels will be facilitated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2059-2076
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Gaussian process classifier (GPC)
  • Kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)
  • Probabilistic fault diagnosis
  • Rolling bearings
  • Sensor fusion
  • Stacked autoencoder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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