Preparation and catalytic performance of tungstophosphoric acid anchored to SiO2@graphene aerogel 3D porous catalysts for the synthesis of ethyl levulinate biofuel

Xiu Cheng Zheng, Ning Li, Shuai Jiang, Min Wu, Guang Ping Zheng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


As fuel additives, ethyl levulinate (EL) can be used up to 5 wt% directly in the regular diesel engines, which can overcome the limited stock of fossil fuels and reduce the environment pollutions to some extent. In this work, the three-dimensional porous hybrids consisting of SiO2 and graphene aerogel, which are denoted as SiO2@GA, are facilely assembled and used as supports for H3PW12O40 (HPW)-based solid acid catalysts. Structural analysis confirms that the resultant HPW/SiO2@GA catalysts possess unique porous structure (SBET ≥ 257 m2 g−1, Vp ≥ 0.450 cm3 g−1) and exhibit excellent catalytic performance in the synthesis of EL by the esterification of levulinic acid (LA) with ethanol. The conversion of LA can be as high as 92.4% under the reaction conditions. Furthermore, various catalytic reaction parameters are also optimized over the 10 wt.% HPW/SiO2@GA catalysts, which exhibit the highest turnover frequency (TOF = 83.91 mmol g−1 h−1) among the resultant catalysts. The results confirm the promising application of the HPW/SiO2@GA heterogeneous catalysts in the synthesis of biofuel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)723-732
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Porous Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2019


  • 3D porous architecture
  • Biofuel
  • Esterification
  • Levulinic acid
  • SiO@GA
  • Tungstophosphoric acid-based catalysts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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