Prediction of a billet shape for axisymmetric warm forming using variational analysis

Ting Fai Kong, Luen Chow Chan, Tai Chui Lee

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


When designing the warm-forming process, it is the usual practice for the preliminary shapes of billets, blanks, or preforms to be predicted by work experience, the geometry of the finished part, and the law of volume constancy. There was no guarantee that the process would be successful. Therefore, in order to verify the reliability of these traditional estimation methods in preparing the billet shapes, it was necessary to conduct a more intensive study. A set of tools in various combinations of punch and die were used both for numerical simulation and for physical modeling. This produced a number of variations in the die cavity. These variations were analyzed to evaluate the feasibility of axisymmetric warm forming with a predicted billet, made of stainless steel AISI 316L. A comparison of the results of the die fillings and load-stroke curves by simulations with experiments showed that the variational analysis is a promising method to use for predicting the critical shapes of billets in axisymmetric warm forming.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)733-738
Number of pages6
JournalKey Engineering Materials
Issue numberI
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2004


  • Axisymmetric warm forming
  • Billet
  • Numerical simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Prediction of a billet shape for axisymmetric warm forming using variational analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this