Precipitation projection using a CMIP5 GCM ensemble model: a regional investigation of Syria

Rajab Homsi, Mohammed Sanusi Shiru, Shamsuddin Shahid, Tarmizi Ismail, Sobri Bin Harun, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Kwok Wing Chau, Zaher Mundher Yaseen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

134 Citations (Scopus)


The possible changes in precipitation of Syrian due to climate change are projected in this study. The symmetrical uncertainty (SU) and multi-criteria decision-analysis (MCDA) methods are used to identify the best general circulation models (GCMs) for precipitation projections. The effectiveness of four bias correction methods, linear scaling (LS), power transformation (PT), general quantile mapping (GEQM), and gamma quantile mapping (GAQM) is assessed in downscaling GCM simulated precipitation. A random forest (RF) model is performed to generate the multi model ensemble (MME) of precipitation projections for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5. The results showed that the best suited GCMs for climate projection of Syria are HadGEM2-AO, CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, NorESM1-M, and CESM1-CAM5. The LS demonstrated the highest capability for precipitation downscaling. Annual changes in precipitation is projected to decrease by −30 to −85.2% for RCPs 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, while by < 0.0 to −30% for RCP 2.6. The precipitation is projected to decrease in the entire country for RCP 6.0, while increase in some parts for other RCPs during wet season. The dry season of precipitation is simulated to decrease by −12 to −93%, which indicated a drier climate for the country in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-106
Number of pages17
JournalEngineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • general circulation model
  • precipitation projection
  • random forest
  • symmetrical uncertainty
  • Syria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Modelling and Simulation


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