Potential pitfalls of smart city development: A study on parking mobile applications (apps) in Hong Kong

Ruiqu Ma, Tsun Ip Lam, C. K. Leung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Smart cities are built upon information and communication technologies (ICTs) to enable a broad range of advanced services. Through a comprehensive literature review, this study identified four pitfalls brought by the pervasive application of ICT, including information insecurity, privacy leakage, information islands, and digital divide. Therefore, a questionnaire survey together with 27 interviews was conducted in Hong Kong to investigate how the public perceived these pitfalls within the context of mobile apps providing real-time parking information which form a major part of smart mobility. System insecurity and privacy leakage were found to arouse worries among the app-users while their awareness of protecting personal data was found to have room for improvement. Islands of real-time parking information occur as a result of the lack of collaboration among private carpark operators. Digital divide existed widely among the disadvantaged groups and the problem cannot be solved by mere provision of ICT facilities. Overall, technologies alone cannot make a city smart or smarter. It is the suitable way in which ICTs are used to serve all citizens that matters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1580-1592
Number of pages13
JournalTelematics and Informatics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018


  • Digital divide
  • Information insecurity
  • Information islands
  • Mobile application
  • Privacy leakage
  • Smart city

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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