Polluter-Pays Principle: Policy Implementation

Ling Zhu, Yachao Zhao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


The Polluter-pays Principle (PPP) was originally introduced by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). It is viewed as "a principle of international harmonisation of national environmental policy" and "a principle of allocation of costs between States in international law". Under the PPP, the polluter's responsibility has gradually been extended to cover the costs of pollution prevention and control, as well as other costs such as charges, taxes, clean-up costs and compensation. There has also been an expansion of the PPP's scope; it now functions in a way that contributes to preventing, reducing and remedying pollution damage. Hong Kong, as an observer in the OECD, has included the PPP in its environmental protection policy since the late 1980s, with the aim of becoming a greener and cleaner city. This paper surveys the laws and policies by which the PPP has been applied in Hong Kong and makes recommendations for its future application. In this process, it is necessary to first understand how the PPP was developed in the OECD.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-39
JournalEnvironmental Policy and Law
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2015

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