Polar aprotic solvent-water mixture as the medium for catalytic production of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from bread waste

Iris K.M. Yu, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Season S. Chen, Lei Wang, Andrew J. Hunt, James Sherwood, Karine De Oliveira Vigier, François Jérôme, Yong Sik Ok, Chi Sun Poon

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


The overall rate of the process was the fastest in ACN/H2O and acetone/H2O, followed by DMSO/H2O and THF/H2O due to the rate-limiting glucose isomerisation. However, the formation of levulinic acid (via rehydration) and humins (via polymerisation) was more significant in ACN/H2O and acetone/H2O. The constant HMF maxima (26–27 mol%) in ACN/H2O, acetone/H2O, and DMSO/H2O indicated that the rates of desirable reactions (starch hydrolysis, glucose isomerisation, and fructose dehydration) relative to undesirable pathways (HMF rehydration and polymerisation) were comparable among these mediums. They also demonstrated higher selectivity towards HMF production over the side reactions than THF/H2O. This study differentiated the effects of polar aprotic solvent-water mediums on simultaneous pathways during biomass conversion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)456-462
Number of pages7
JournalBioresource Technology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
  • Biorefinery
  • Food waste
  • Levulinic acid
  • Waste valorisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal

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