Planning ability following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: Performance on a 4-disk version of the tower of london

Ho Keung David Shum, H. Gill, M. Banks, A. Maujean, J. Griffin, H. Ward

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to assess planning ability in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a 4-disk version of the Tower of London (TOL). Thirty three individuals with TBI were compared with equivalent numbers of matched controls. Overall, the TOL4 was shown to be sensitive to the effects of brain injury, with the TBI group performing significantly more poorly on this version of the planning test than the matched controls. More specifically, group differences were found to be related to the complexity of the planning problems, particularly among a TBI subgroup with localised prefrontal damage. Results of the study provide support for the adverse effects of TBI on planning ability, and the important role of the pre-frontal cortex in planning.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)320-324
Number of pages5
JournalBrain Impairment
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Adults
  • Planning
  • TBI
  • Tower of London

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Speech and Hearing

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