Pilot evaluation of the Whole Inclusive School Empowerment (WISE) project in kindergartens in Hong Kong: A mixed method approach

Cynthia Leung, Janet Leung, Shirley Leung, Wally Karnilowicz

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This pilot study used a quasiexperimental design to evaluate the Whole Inclusive School Empowerment (WISE) project providing educational psychology services to kindergartens to support students with diverse learning needs. There were eight intervention kindergartens that received WISE educational psychology services and eight control kindergartens without the service. The intervention kindergartens were provided with a 0.125 educational psychologist and 0.7 teacher coordinator. In January and June 2017, teachers in intervention and control kindergartens completed questionnaires assessing student behavior, school readiness, and their own teaching efficacy. Focus group sessions involving teachers and school principals were conducted in July 2017. The results indicated a greater improvement in prosocial behavior and school readiness in intervention kindergartens compared with control kindergartens. Teachers and principals reported that they were better equipped in supporting diverse learning needs. The results provided initial evidence supporting the effectiveness of educational psychology services for kindergartens in improving student outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-55
Number of pages14
JournalPsychology in the Schools
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • educational psychology
  • mixed methods
  • preschool

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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