Physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among young, early mature and late mature people: A cross-sectional study of 76,223 in China

Ying Li, Chun Zhang, Siqing Ding, Jie Li, Lijun Li, Yue Kang, Xiaoqian Dong, Ziyu Wan, Yating Luo, Andy SK Cheng, Jianfei Xie, Yinglong Duan (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to screen for depressive symptoms in a large sample of Chinese population, and explore the effects of demographic and lifestyle factors on depressive symptoms based on the brain maturity. Method: Adults from 8 health management centers in 6 provinces completed an online health self-report questionnaire. Finally, a total of 76,223 valid questionnaires were collected. Result: A total of 76,223 participants were included in this study, including 44,167 (57.9%) males and 32,056 (42.1%) females. The percentage of clinically relevant depressive symptoms among young, early mature and late mature participants was 13.5%, 18.5% and 27.3%, respectively. Among young participants, being female was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while having a bachelor's or graduate degree, being married, smoking, and moderate alcohol consumption were protective factors. And among early mature participants, female, married and other marital status, BMI of 24-27.9 were risk factors, post-graduate education or above, smoking, moderate alcohol consumption and meeting exercise standard were protective factors. Among late mature participants, Compared with junior high school, all other degrees were protective factors, as was meeting physical activity standards, excessive alcohol consumption was a risk factor. Conclusion: This study analyzed the association among young, early mature and late mature participants respectively, and proposed strategies for improving healthy lifestyle of Chinese people. Our findings support the need for individualized recommendations to improve mental health based on brain maturity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-66
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Early online date23 Nov 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Nov 2021


  • Brain maturity
  • Chinese
  • Depressive symptoms
  • Health check-up population
  • Lifestyle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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