Performance on the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and its supplementary tests: Comparing Chinese and U.S. kindergarten children

Linda F.L. Tse, Man Hong Andrew Siu, Wai Ping Cecilia Tsang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Visual-motor integration (VMI) is the ability to coordinate visual perception and motor skills. Although Chinese children have superior performance in VMI than U.S. norms, there is limited information regarding the performance of its basic composition of VMI in regard to visual and motor aspects. This study aimed to examine the differences in performance in VMI, visual perception (VP), and motor coordination (MC) using the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI-6) among Hong Kong Chinese kindergarten children compared to established U.S. norms. Standard scores for each age were statistically compared to the corresponding mean values for U.S. children. This comparison showed significantly higher VMI mean scores for Hong Kong Chinese children than for their age-matched peers. The following equation was derived to allow for a comparison of VMI to U.S. norms (adjusted score = 0.777 (Chinese VMI raw score)—0.796). In extending current knowledge on superior performance in VMI among Chinese children, better VP and MC skills were also observed. This phenomenon might be due to the orthographic feature of traditional Chinese characters and early formal instruction on reading and writing in Hong Kong. This study has not only pointed out the need to administer all three tests of the VMI-6 to identify the underlying causes of VMI problems but has also alerted educators and clinicians as to when to administer the tests to Chinese children in Hong Kong.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)408-419
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, and Early Intervention
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2017


  • Chinese children
  • motor coordination
  • visual perception
  • Visual-motor integration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Occupational Therapy

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