Performance evaluation of ibeacon deployment for location-based services in physical learning spaces

Coco Yin Tung Kwok, Man Sing Wong, Sion Griffiths, Fiona Yan Yan Wong, Roy Kam, David C.W. Chin, Guanjing Xiong, Esmond Mok

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleTeaching and learningpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless network technology used for transmitting data over short distances. BLE maintains a data transmission range comparable to the regular Bluetooth transmission, but consumes less energy and cost. iBeacon technology refers to BLE mobile devices, which allow mobile applications to receive signals from iBeacons in both indoor and outdoor environments. It is commonly used nowadays for positioning, location services, navigation and marketing, for the sustainable development of smart cities. The applications, however, can be further enhanced for use in many disciplines, such as education, health sector, and exhibitions for disseminating information. This study performed a set of robustness and performance tests on BLE-based iBeacons in the teaching and learning environments to evaluate the performance of iBeacon signals for positioning. During robustness testing, positioning accuracy, signal availability and stability were assessed under different environmental conditions, and the findings suggested pedestrian traffic blocking the line of sight between iBeacon and receiver, causing the most signal attenuations and variation in RSSI. In performance testing, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate the deployment of the iBeacons for positioning; leading to recommendations of iBeacon deployment location, density, transmission interval, fingerprint space interval and collection time in physical learning spaces for sustainable eLearning environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7126
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2020


  • Bluetooth Low Energy
  • IBeacons
  • Physical learning space
  • Positioning accuracy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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