Performance enhancement of hybrid personal cooling clothing in a hot environment: PCM cooling energy management with additional insulation

Udayraj, Faming Wang, Wenfang Song, Ying Ke, Pengjun Xu, Cathy Sin Wei Chow, Nuruzzaman Noor

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


A novel design of personal cooling clothing incorporating additional insulation sandwiched between phase change materials (PCMs) and clothing outer layer is proposed. Performance of four personal cooling systems including clothing with only PCMs, clothing with PCMs and insulation (PCM + INS), clothing with PCMs and ventilation fans (HYB), and clothing with PCMs, ventilation fans and insulation (HYB + INS) was investigated. Effect of additional insulation on clothing cooling performance in terms of human physiological and perceptual responses was also examined. Human trials were carried out in a hot environment (i.e. 36 °C, RH = 59%). Results showed that significantly lower mean skin/torso temperatures were registered in HYB + INS as compared to HYB. In contrast, no significant effect of the use of insulation on both skin and body temperatures between PCM and PCM + INS was observed. Also, no significant difference in thermal sensations, thermal comfort, and skin wetness sensation was registered between cooling systems with and without additional insulation. Practitioner Summary: Hybrid personal cooling clothing has shown the ability to provide a relatively cool microclimate around the wearer’ body while working in hot environments. The present work addresses the importance of cooling energy saving for PCMs in a hot environment. This work contributes to optimising cooling performance of hybrid personal cooling systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)928-939
Number of pages12
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2019


  • air ventilation
  • energy management
  • Heat stress
  • personal cooling
  • phase change materials
  • physiological responses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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