Performance-Based Bi-Objective Retrofit Optimization of Building Portfolios Considering Uncertainties and Environmental Impacts

Ziyi Zhou, Ghazanfar Ali Anwar, You Dong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


It is essential to assess the performance of a community under probable hazard scenarios and to provide possible performance enhancements. This requires establishing performance indica-tors, an assessment method, and an optimization technique to provide mitigation alternatives. In this paper, multiple performance indicators are utilized to assess the performance of a community building portfolio including loss, downtime, and environmental impact (e.g., CO2 emissions). The performance of a community is assessed by utilizing a performance-based assessment methodology. Then, the performance indicators are utilized as performance objectives to be optimized considering non-dominated sorting and crowding distance evolutionary optimization techniques. The framework utilizes retrofit alternatives for each building in a community and provides Pareto-optimal solutions for considered performance objectives given retrofit cost. This process of performance assessment and optimization is repeated by utilizing the Monte Carlo approach to consider uncertainties. Finally, the Pareto-optimal solutions are utilized to evaluate the retrofit programs for community building portfolios in terms of considered performance indicators.

Original languageEnglish
Article number85
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Bi-objective
  • Buildings
  • Optimization
  • Retrofit
  • Risk
  • Sustainability
  • Uncertainties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Architecture
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction

Cite this