Perceived Intelligence of Artificially Intelligent Assistants for Travel: Scale Development and Validation

Erin Chao Ling, Iis Tussyadiah, Anyu Liu, Jason Stienmetz

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This study developed a perceived intelligence scale for artificially intelligent (AI) assistants and investigated its impact on users’ travel-related behavioral intentions. A four-stage study with a mixed-methods design was conducted. Study 1 identified three dimensions and 26 initial items through a systematic literature review, interviews, and focus group discussions. Study 2 used exploratory factor analysis to refine the items. Through composite confirmatory analysis, Study 3 confirmed an 18-item and three-dimensional scale (conversational intelligence, information quality, anthropomorphism). Study 4 established the scale’s predictive validity in travelers’ intentions to use AI assistants to search for travel information and make travel bookings. This research made the first attempt to identify factors shaping users’ perceptions of AI assistant intelligence, extending the understanding of human-AI interaction and AI technology adoption in the travel sector. Furthermore, it provides actionable recommendations for the travel industry and AI developers when designing and deploying AI assistant services.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Early online date29 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • AI assistants
  • artificial intelligence
  • perceived intelligence
  • scale development
  • travel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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