Patterns of spread of influenza A in Canada

Daihai He, Jonathan Dushoff, Raluca Eftimie, David J.D. Earn

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Understanding spatial patterns of influenza transmission is important for designing control measures. We investigate spatial patterns of laboratoryconfirmed influenza A across Canada from October 1999 to August 2012. A statistical analysis (generalized linear model) of the seasonal epidemics in this time period establishes a clear spatio-temporal pattern, with influenza emerging earlier in western provinces. Early emergence is also correlated with low temperature and low absolute humidity in the autumn. For the richer data from the 2009 pandemic, a mechanistic mathematical analysis, based on a transmission model, shows that both school terms and weather had important effects on pandemic influenza transmission.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20131174
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1770
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sept 2013


  • Influenza
  • Pandemic
  • School term
  • Spatial pattern
  • Vaccination
  • Weather

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Environmental Science
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


Dive into the research topics of 'Patterns of spread of influenza A in Canada'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this