Patchwork-based audio watermarking method robust to de-synchronization attacks

Yong Xiang, Iynkaran Natgunanathan, Song Guo, Wanlei Zhou, Saeid Nahavandi

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

76 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a patchwork-based audio watermarking method to resist de-synchronization attacks such as pitch-scaling, time-scaling, and jitter attacks. At the embedding stage, the watermarks are embedded into the host audio signal in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain. Then, a set of synchronization bits are implanted into the watermarked signal in the logarithmic DCT (LDCT) domain. At the decoding stage, we analyze the received audio signal in the LDCT domain to find the scaling factor imposed by an attack. Then, we modify the received signal to remove the scaling effect, together with the embedded synchronization bits. After that, watermarks are extracted from the modified signal. Simulation results show that at the embedding rate of 10 bps, the proposed method achieves 98.9% detection rate on average under the considered de-synchronization attacks. At the embedding rate of 16 bps, it can still obtain 94.7% detection rate on average. So, the proposed method is much more robust to de-synchronization attacks than other patchwork watermarking methods. Compared with the audio watermarking methods designed for tackling de-synchronization attacks, our method has much higher embedding capacity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2328175
Pages (from-to)1413-1423
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Audio watermarking
  • De-synchronization attack
  • Discrete cosine transform
  • Patchwork
  • Synchronization bits

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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