Overview of Axial-Flux Machines and Modeling Methods

Rundong Huang, Zaixin Song, Hang Zhao, Chunhua Liu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


With the increasing requirements and demands for electric machines in various applications, axial-flux machines (AFMs) attract more and more attention in recent years because of their unique merits of high power density, compact structure, and high material utilization. This article mainly investigates the topologies of AFMs and corresponding modeling methods. In general, AFMs can be classified according to different criteria. One classification is based on the machine configuration, and another one is based on their operational principles. The first classification discusses the characteristics of single-side AFMs, double-side AFMs, and multidisk AFMs. The second classification discusses the characteristics of conventional AFMs and emerging AFMs. As for the modeling methods, this article summarizes finite-element methods (FEMs) and analytical methods in detail. Based on these investigations, the article can provide the guidance and foresights for the design and analysis of AFMs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2118-2132
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Analytical method
  • axial-flux machines (AFMs)
  • compactness
  • finite-element method (FEM)
  • high power density
  • machine topology
  • modeling method
  • permanent magnet (PM) machine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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