Output specifications for PPP projects : lessons from case studies

A.A. Javed, Tsun Ip Lam, Ping Chuen Chan

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingConference article published in proceeding or bookAcademic research


Output specifications convey the client's requirements on physical assets and services during their operation. A well written set of output specification can induce innovation, bring about increased efficiency and effect appropriate risk transfer from the public to the private sector in PPP projects. It stipulates what is required from a PPP project in terms of outputs rather than inputs; it states what performance standards are expected to be achieved, the monitoring mechanism and provides links to the payment mechanism. Drafting a clear and concise output specification is always a challenge especially for countries not using standard documents for procuring PPP projects. In this paper, case studies in three different PPPIPFI projects located in Hong Kong, the UK and Singapore are presented for comparing similarities and differences.||The aim of this paper is twofold, firstly to examine the issues in drafting output specifications in three different types of PPP projects. Secondly, lessons are drawn from these projects for improving the efficacy of output specifications.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication[Missing Source Name from PIRA]
PublisherFaculty of Construction and Land Use, Hong Kong Polytechnic University
ISBN (Print)9789881731166
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2011


  • Public private partnership (PPP)
  • Private finance initiative (PFI)
  • Output specifications
  • Case studies


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