(In + Nb) co-doped TiO2(TINO) rutile is an emerging material with a colossal dielectric permittivity (CP) and a low dielectric loss over wide temperature and frequency ranges. The electrical inhomogeneous nature of TINO ceramics is demonstrated by direct local current probing with high-resolution conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM). The CP response in TINO is found to originate from the electron-pinned defect dipole induced conductive cluster effect and the electrode effect. Two types of dielectric relaxations are simultaneously observed due to these two effects. With the given synthesis condition, we found TINO shows a highly leaky feature that impairs its application as a dielectric material. However, the fast-temperature-rising phenomenon found in this work may open a new door for TINO to be applied as a potential electrothermal material with high efficiency, oxidation-proof, high temperature stability, and energy saving.
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