This paper addresses the optimal toll design problem for the cordon-based congestion pricing scheme, where both a time-toll and a nonlinear distance-toll (i.e., joint distance and time toll) are levied for each network user's trip in a pricing cordon. The users' route choice behaviour is assumed to follow the Logit-based stochastic user equilibrium (SUE). We first propose a link-based convex programming model for the Logit-based SUE problem with a joint distance and time toll pattern. A mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC) is developed to formulate the optimal joint distance and time toll design problem. The developed MPEC model is equivalently transformed into a semi-infinite programming (SIP) model. A global optimization method named Incremental Constraint Method (ICM) is designed for solving the SIP model. Finally, two numerical examples are used to assess the proposed methodology.
- Cordon-based pricing
- Mathematical program with equilibrium constraints
- Nonlinear distance pricing
- Stochastic system optimum
- Tangent plane approximation method
ASJC Scopus subject areas