Optical Uplink, D2D and IoT Links Based on VCSEL Array: Analysis and Demonstration

Zixian Wei, Yuan Zhang, Simei Mao, Zhongxu Liu, Zihan Zang, Changyuan Yu, Yuhan Dong, H. Y. Fu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array is used to establish gigabits/second (Gbps) optical uplink, device-to-device (D2D), and Internet-of-thing (IoT) links, as a supplementary for visible light communication (VLC) and ultra-low latency near-field communication in a typical indoor scenario. The mathematical model based on a modified Monte-Carlo ray-tracing (MMCR) algorithm for VCSEL-based optical wireless communication (OWC) is presented, which takes into account both accuracy and time complexity for the calculation of the channel characteristics including power distribution, impulse response, error analysis, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Simulation firstly takes a global approach to the optical uplink lens design method, compared between Lambertian and Gaussian sources, and then extended six typical line-of-sight (LOS) or non-line-of-sight (NLOS) VCSEL-based OWC models. For demonstration, we adopted a 940-nm VCSEL array and 850-nm single-pixel VCSEL to establish LOS and NLOS systems after measuring the optics-electronics and bandwidth characteristics, respectively. Furthermore, multiple multi-carrier schemes are adopted to improve the OWC performance system based on a 940-nm VCSEL array including uniform-loading orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), channel-coded OFDM, bit-loading/ power-allocation OFDM, and OFDM access (OFDMA). Results show that OFDM can effectively decrease the inter-symbol interference (ISI) of the indoor channel and increase the data rate, and the bit/ power-loading method achieves the highest 7.2 Gbps transmission with the bit error rate (BER) within the forward error correction (FEC). All the theoretical and experimental results, for the first time, provide a comprehensive design and optimizing process of VCSEL-based indoor high-capacity OWC systems for future optical uplink, D2D, and IoT applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9769887
Pages (from-to)5083 - 5096
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • GBPS optical uplink
  • Gbps D2D and IoT links
  • VCSEL array
  • lens design
  • monte-carlo ray-tracing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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